The 1900 Buganda Agreement
Officials of the Kingdom. Regent Stanislas Mugwanya (center) with other Buganda chiefs in the 1890s, during the reign of Kabaka Daudi Chwa II. Regents and chiefs benefited from the distribution of land according to the Buganda Agreement of 1900, which rewarded them for their collaboration with the British. FILE PHOTO The agreement stipulated that the Kabaka were to exercise direct domination over the buganda natives who, through the Lukiiko and its officials, do justice.  He also consolidated the power of the head of Bakungu`s largely Protestant clientele, led by Kagwa. The British sent few officials to run the country, relying mainly on Bakungu chiefs. For decades, they were privileged because of their political skill, Christianity, friendly relations with the British, ability to collect taxes, and Entebbe`s proximity to the Ugandan capital. In the 1920s, British administrators were more confident and had less need for military or administrative support.  Before the signing of the agreement, the entire country of Buganda belonged to the Kabaka, hence the title Sabataka.
The Kabaka unrest of 1953 is another factor responsible for political change in Buganda. Kabaka`s problems were due to disagreements between Sir Andrew Cohen and Kabaka Muteesa ll and led to the Kabaka being exiled to Britain because he was unable to verify the terms of the Buganda Treaty of 1900. The crisis gave the Lukiiko absolute authority to propose who the Kabaka ministers would be, and that is why the Kabaka should be accountable to the Lukiiko and not to the British federal government, as was the case under the Buganda Treaty. The Kabaka was deprived of its right to appoint Lukiiko clients under the Buganda agreement. However, the Kabaka riots presented him with the right to appoint his officers and the Kabaka became a constitutional monarch when his position was redefined. In 1935, Sir Philip Mitchell arrived in Uganda as governor after serving sixteen years earlier in Tanganjika. He was convinced that the relationship between Uganda and the Protecting Power should be different from that between the local authorities and the Government of Tanganjika.  Recognizing that the early protectorate agents had produced a pattern of growing distrust and clandestine change, Mitchell devised a plan for reform and transformation of the system between the protectorate government and the Buganda government.  Believing that the relationship between the protectorate government and the Buganda indigenous government was one of protected rather than indirect domination, he planned to replace the post of Buganda provincial commissioner with one resident and remove district officials from the centre, assuming that the Kabaka would be required to follow the advice of the resident and his staff.  However, under the 1900 Uganda Agreement, the Kabaka was only required to respond to these recommendations if the Lukiiko resolutions were implemented. Relations between the Kabaka, the Protectorate government and its ministers deteriorated, and due to the limited power of the governor under the 1900 agreement to impose his advice on Kabaka, the reorganization led to a steady decrease in the influence that the protectorate government could exert in Buganda.  The signing in 1900 took place after years of negotiations under the leadership of Bishop Alfred Tucker.
No wonder the Anglican Church under the Church Missionary Society took the lion`s share in the new government after the signing of the agreement. The agreement had three sections: power-sharing, the system of public finances, and the country. . . .